跳到主要內容區塊

104濃縮雞骨高湯加工與氣味物質分析

論文分類: 碩士論文
學號: p0230002
姓名: 邱惠珍
指導教授: 陳翠瑤
畢業日期: 2016-08-01
摘要: 雞骨價格低廉又具營養價值,常用於熬製雞高湯,可提升料理的風味及口感。欲熬製美味的雞高湯過程相當費時耗工,少有家庭或餐廳自製。因此,開發味道鮮美、香氣濃郁的雞高湯成品,將會受到市場的喜愛。本研究以傳統市場採購的雞骨架,切成長度1cm大小後添加三倍水量 (g/mL),置於高壓爐中以115℃、壓力0.07 MPa,熬煮60分鐘,冷卻取得雞油及雞骨高湯,再將雞骨高湯濃縮至得率30%後取得蒸餾液及濃縮雞骨高湯,分析濃縮前後的雞骨高湯中總游離胺基酸、總游離核苷酸含量,並以感官品評了解產品在受消費者的接受度;同時以頂空固相微萃取 (head space solid phase micro-extraction ; HS-SPME)配合氣相層析質譜儀(Gas-Chromatograph-Mass ; GC/MS) 分析熬煮後的雞骨高湯、原雞骨高湯濃縮過程的蒸餾液、濃縮雞骨高湯、雞油等四個樣品中揮發性化合物成分,探討香氣成分的分布及成品的關係。結果雞骨高湯濃縮後總游離胺基酸及總游離核苷酸含量皆有倍數提升的現象。以濃縮雞高湯及雞油調製出自製雞湯適當稀釋後的高湯與市售雞高湯比較消費者的接受度,自製雞湯接受度較高,消費者較喜歡自製雞湯達74%,較喜歡市售雞湯僅為26%,自製雞湯在外觀、香氣、口感、風味上皆優於市售雞湯。揮發性成分鑑定出13個化合物,其中2,4-癸二烯醛(2,4-Decadienal) 於蒸餾液中的含量最高,其為雞肉的主要揮發性香氣物質。而雞油中的2,4-壬二烯醛(2,4-Nonadienal) 含量較高,其為脂肪氣味物質,因此回添雞油於雞湯中有提升高湯風味的效果。
參考文獻: 杜華英、葉 慧、高國清、徐明生。2013。 不同熬製方法對雞湯品質的影響。中國肉類食品綜合研究中心。23(7):26-29
岳馨任。2009。瓦罐雞湯特徵滋味成分研究及工藝條件對其品質的影響。華中農業大學碩士論文。
紀偉偉、劉 揚、洪文龍。2012。雞湯類產品研究現狀及其發展趨勢。食品工業科技。1:430-432
袁華根、高 峰、徐 駿。2006。雞肉揮發性風味化合物分析。江西農業學報。18(5):139-141
張小強。2008。熱處理對雞湯品質的影響。河南農業大學碩士論文。
陳宜絹。2001。HEMF與肉類香味前驅物質在模式加熱反應中形成香氣成分之研究。大葉大學碩士論文。
賀習耀、王 嬋。2013。加熱方式對雞湯風味品質影響的研究。食品科技。38(10)77-82
曾清清、張立彥。2014。熬煮條件對雞骨高湯品質的影響研究。食品工業科技。1:106-115
楊濯羽、李永鵬、余群力、張 麗、張文華、張玉斌。2013。真空減壓濃縮工藝對牛骨湯揮發性化合物的影響。食品科學。34(10):159-163
瞿明勇。2008。排骨湯和雞湯的烹製工藝及營養特性。華中農業大學碩士論文。

Balasubramanian, S., Panigrahi, S. 2011. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME ) techniques for quality characterization of food products: A Review. Food Bioprocess Techinol. 4:1-26
Blank, I., Lin, J., Vera, F.A., Welti, D.H. and Fay, L.B. 2001. Identification of potents formed by autoxidation of arachidonic acid: Structure elucidation and synthesis of (E,Z,Z)-2,4,7tridecatrienal. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49: 2959-2965
Chen, G., Song, H., and Ma, C. 2009. Aroma-active compounds of Beijing roast duck. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 24:186-191
Li, D. 2011. Comparative Research on Extraction of Beef Flavor Components by TD, SPME, and SDE. Journal of Beijing Technology and Business University(Natural Science Edition ). 2:13-17
Du, H.y., Ye, H., Xu, M. S. 2013. Effect of different cooking methods on the quality of chicken soup. China meat research center. 27 (7): 26-29
Jayasena, D.D., Ahn, D.U., Nam, K.C., Jo C. 2013. Factors affecting cooked chicken meat flavor: a review. World’s Poultry Science Journal. 69: 515-526
Kuninak, A., Kibi, M. and Sakaguchi, K. 1964. History and development of flavor nucleotides. Food Technol. March:29
Liebich, H. M., Douglas, D. R., Zlatkis, A., Muggler-Chavan, F., and Donzel, A. 1972. Volatile compounds in roast beef. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 20: 96-99
Lu, X., Cheng, J. 2010. Production technology of chicken bone soup. China Brewing. 8: 47-51
Ma, Q.L., Hamid N., Bekhit A.E.D., Robertson J., Law T.F. 2013. Optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME ) for gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS ) analysis of aroma compounds in cooked beef using response surface methodology. Microchemical Journal. 111:16-24
MacLeod, G. 1986. The scientific and technological basis of meat flavors. Developments in Food Flavours. ed. Brich, G. G.; Lindley, M. G, Elsevier, London.191-223
Mason, M.E., Johnson, B., Hamming, M.C. 1967. Volatile components of roasted peanuts: the major monocarbonyls and some noncarbonyl components. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 15(1):66-70
Melton, S. L. 1999. Current status of meat flavor. In: Quality Attributes of Muscle Foods ed.Y.L. Xiong, C.T. Ho and F. Shahidi. Kluwer Academic/ Plenum Publixhers, New York. 115-130.
Mottram, D. S. 1991 Meat. Volatile Compounds in Foods and Beverages. ed. Maarse, H. 107-177
Mottram, D. S. 1998. Flavour formation in meat and meat products. A review. Food Chemistry 62:415-424
Mottram, D. S. and Edwards, R. A. 1983. The role of triglycerides and phospholipids in the aroma of cooked beef. Journal of the Science of food and Agriculture. 34:517-522
Noleau, I. and Toulmonder, B. 1987. Volatile components of roasted chicken fat. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und-Technologie. 20:37-41
Perez-Alvarez, J. A., Sendra-Nadal, E., Sanchez-Zapata, E.J. and Viuda-Martos, M. 2010. Poultry flavor: General aspects and applications, in :Guerrero-legarreta, I. & Hui, Y.H.(eds) Handbook of Poultry Science and Technology:Secondary Processing. 2:339-357(New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons)
Ramarathnam, N., Rubin, L.J. and Diosandy, L.L. 1993. Studies on meat flavor:4. Fractionation, characterization, and quantitation of volatiles from uncured and cured beef and chicken. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 41: 939-945
Sasaki, K., Motoyama, M., Mitsumoto, M. 2007. Changes in the amounts of water-soluble umami-related substances in porcine longissimus and biceps femoris muscles during moist heat cooking. Meat Science. 77:167-172
Shahidi, F. 2002. Lipid derived flavors in meat products, in: Kerry, J., Kerry, J.& Ledward, D. eds. Meat Processing: Improving Quality, 105-121 (Cambridge, Woodhead Publishing Ltd).
Shi, H. and Ho, C.T. 1994. The flavor of poultry meat, in:Shahidi, F. ed. Flavor of Meat and Meat Products. 52-69 (Glasgow, Blackie Academic and Professional)
Shibamoto, T. 1980. Heterocyclic compounds found in cooked meat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 28:237-243
Song, H., and Xia, L. 2008. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Aroma extract dilution analysis of a beef flavouring prepared from flavor precursors and enzymatically hydrolysed beef. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 23:185-193
Song, N., Tan, C., Huang, M., Liu, P., Eric, K., Zhang, X., Xia, S. and Jia, C. 2013. Transglutaminase cross-linking effect on sensory characteristics and antioxidant activities of Maillard reaction products from soybean protein hydrolysates. Food Chemistry. 136(1): 144–151
Song, S., Tang, Q., Hayat, K., Karangwa, E., Zhang, X., Xiao, Z. 2014. Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis with subsequent mild thermal oxidation of tallow on precursor formation and sensory profiles of beef flavours assessed by partial least squares regression. Meat science. 96:1191-1200
Song, S., Zhang, X., Xiao, Z., Niu, Y.,, Hayat, K., and Eric, K. 2012. Contribution of oxidized tallow to aroma characteristics of beeflike process flavor assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and partial least squares regression. Journal of Chromatography A. 1254:115-124
Van Boekel, M.A.J.S 2006. Formation of flavor compounds in the Maillard reaction. Biotechnology Advances. 24:230-233
Watkins, P.J., Rose, G., Warner, R.D., Dunshea, F.R. and Pethick, D.W. 2012. A comparison of solid-phase microextraction (SPME ) with simultaneous distillation–extraction (SDE ) for the analysis of volatile compounds in heated beef and sheep fats. Meat Science. 91 (2 ): 99-107
Zeng Q.Q., Zhang L.Y. 2014. Study on effect of boiling conditions on quality of chicken bone stock. Science and Technology of Food Industry. 35 (1): 106-115
瀏覽數: