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104亞致死劑量陶斯松對蜜蜂幼蟲及成蟲之影響

論文分類: 碩士論文
學號: p0330008
姓名: 李元煌
指導教授: 陳裕文
畢業日期: 2016-07-01
摘要: 近年來研究顯示,蜜蜂自外界採集攜回的花粉和花蜜中含有多種的農藥殘留。這些殘留的亞致死農藥劑量雖不至於直接殺死蜜蜂,但是對蜜蜂的取食時間、幼蟲的生長及蜜蜂羽化後的學習能力是否會造成影響,是目前被關注的一個方向。文獻調查顯示在花粉和花蜜中檢驗出的農藥中有多數殘留陶斯松,本研究即探討亞致死劑量陶斯松對蜜蜂成蜂與幼蟲的影響。在成蜂方面,本研究記錄西洋蜜蜂分別吸食5.1、10.2、20.4、30.6 ppm的陶斯松糖水連續5次,記錄每次往返餵食器與蜂巢的時間,發現蜜蜂採食時間異常的情形與陶斯松濃度、連續採食次數等因素相關。當蜜蜂只吸食1次陶斯松糖水,各處理濃度均無出現採食異常的現象;吸食第2次處理糖水時, 30.6 ppm與20.4 ppm陶斯松糖水,分別有36.7%、3.3%的蜜蜂不再返回餵食器吸食糖水;此後隨著連續採食的次數增加,蜜蜂消失的現象亦逐漸增加;當蜜蜂第5次採食處理糖水時,只有5.1 ppm處理糖水的蜜蜂仍會於正常的時間內往返取食,而30.6 ppm處糖水組則有高達86.7%出現消失現象。在蜜蜂幼蟲試驗部分,選擇1日齡幼蟲分別餵食6.4、12.9、25.7、128.5、257.0、514.1 ng/larvae的陶斯松,以觀察該劑量是否對幼蟲封蓋及成蟲羽化造成的影響。結果顯示餵食高量陶斯松 (>257.04 ng/larvae) 會顯著影響幼蟲進入封蓋期 (封蓋率=60.4%,羽化率=42.5%),而餵食低於128.5 ng/larvae以下的陶斯松,則與對照組無顯著差異。以上結果顯示,128.5 ng/larva為陶斯松對蜜蜂幼蟲的亞致死劑量閥值。本研究接著以亞致死劑量陶斯松餵飼幼蟲,將羽化後的工蜂進行口吻延伸反應 (proboscis extension reflex, PER),發現陶斯松高於12.9 ng/larvae對蜜蜂的學習能力有顯著影響。試驗結果顯示蜜蜂取食含5.1〜30.6 ppm 等濃度陶斯松糖水,第一次均無消失及延遲情形。此與蜜蜂取食1次含50 μg/liter益達胺糖水即出現異常行為,兩者的效價濃度差異達600倍以上。本研究所有的觀測數據均未出現「延遲」行為,此與低濃度益達胺先出現「延遲」行為,高濃度益達胺才出現「消失」現象不同。蜜蜂工蜂幼蟲餵食陶斯松劑量>=12.9 ng/larva,顯著影響蜜蜂聯想學習行為,而前人研究顯示餵食益達胺0.04 ng/ larva顯著影響蜜蜂聯想學習行為。此結果顯示益達胺的效價約為300倍陶斯松。根據文獻得知幼蟲透過蜂蜜取食陶斯松劑量約為34.68 ng (>=12.9 ng/larva),幼蟲透過花粉取食陶斯松劑量約為17.82 ng/bee (>=12.9 ng/larva),可知幼蟲階段取食巢內食物源,羽化成蜂可能產生學習障礙。本論文研究結果證明亞致死劑量陶斯松對蜜蜂學習能力具有潛在影響,而高劑量陶斯松會對成蜂具急性毒性。
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